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An electric field is the area of space neighboring various electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. The electric field presents the force exerted on other electrically charged objects by the electrically charged particle the field is surrounding. The concept of an electric field was established by Michael Faraday.
Electric fields are created by charges. Assume a stationary charge Q that is the “source charge” which creates an electric field E, and that another separate charge q that is a “test charge” is placed in the E-field generated due to Q.
Then, the electric field E is defined as the force F experienced by a stationary positive unit point charge q at position r in relation to Q in the field:
As the E field can differ from point to point in space, that is depends on r, it is a vector field. By Coulomb’s law, the E-field at a point in space due to Q is represented by:
Here r = |r| is the magnitude of the position vector, is the unit vector corresponding to, and ε0 is the electric constant.
From the definition, it is known that the direction of the electric field is the same as the direction of the force it would exert on a positively-charged particle, and contradictory the direction of the force on a negatively-charged particle.
According to Coulomb’s law, the electric field is reliant on position. Hence an electric field is defined with respect to a particular configuration of source charges.