Errors in Measurement Quantum Physics

Errors in Measurement| Quantum Physics | Physics Assignments |

Accuracy: – and instrument is said to be accurate if the measured value of a physical quantity resembles very closely to its true value.

Precision: – an instrument is said to have a high degree of precision of the measured value remains unchanged, howsoever, large number of times it may have been repeated.

Difference between actual and measured value of a physical quantity is called error. If am is measured value and at is actual value of a physical quantity then the error is

E = ∆a = |am – at|

Types of error

Errors may broadly be divided into two types: systematic errors and random errors.

Systematic error: – errors arising due to the system of measurement or the errors made due to the parts involved in the system of measurement are called systematic errors.

Instrumental error: – these may occur (a) due to faulty calibration (b) due to wear and tear (for instance, zero error in venire caliper or screw gauge) (c) because of faulty fitting and so on.

Personal errors: – or errors caused by the observer each observer has a peculiar behaviour. Some may be quite carless while the others get bore when they have to of repeated jobs and still others cannot read correct due to eyesight problem or due to other personal problems. Such errors are eliminated if the observations are taken by different observers.

Environmental error: – change in temperature (due to weather conditions), pressure, wind direction, humidity and so on play a vital role while recording the reading. For example, if we measure the length of a rod in summer and in winter it would be different as rod and measuring scale may have different expansion coefficients, however, these errors can be avoided b artificially creating the same environment in the laboratory.

Random errors: – (or statistical errors) consider an example. The probability of tossing a coin is 1/2. If a coin is tossed 1000 times then the chance that we get exactly 500 times head and 500 time tail is negligible. If 1 m A current is passing through a wire, can we be

Sure that always [n = 10-3 / 1.6 x 10-19 – 6.25 x 1015]

Constant numbers of electrons equal to 6.25 x 1015 are flowing per second through it. These examples illustrate how random errors creep in. even this error cannot be removed.

Methods of expressing error

Absolute error: – the deviation from true value of measured value or deviation of the value from its mean value (of all observations).

Thus, ∆Xi = | xi – xm|

Is absolute error where xm is mean value and Xi is the component of the observation?

Relative error: – the ratio of mean absolute error to the true value of physical quantity is called relative error.,

That is,

∆x /x or ∆x / xm is called relative error.

Percentage error = relative error x 100 = ∆x / x 100

Propagation or combination of errors

Case (i) when x = a +b

Then maximum possible % error = ∆x/x x 100 = ∆a + ∆b / a + b x 100

Case (ii) when x = a – b

Then maximum possible % error = ∆x / x x100 = ∆a + ∆B / a – b x 100

Case (iii) when x =a. b

Then maximum possible % error = ∆x/x x 100 = [∆a / a =+ ∆b / b] x 100

Case (IV) when x = a/b

Then maximum possible % error = ∆x/x x 100 = (∆a /a + ∆b / b) x 100

Case (v) when x = a1 bm / yp zk

Then maximum possible % error

= ∆x/x x 100 = (I∆a/a + m∆b/b + p∆y/y + k∆z/z) x 100


Define Full Value Debentures Finance Management

Full Value Debentures | Financial Management | Finance Help

The company usually does not require a debenture holder to pay in one lot the full value debentures. He is generally required to pay it by installments however this no way prevents a company form calling for the full amount on debentures at the time of application.

Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash

It is not necessary to issue debentures only for cash it can be issued of consideration other than cash if a company purchases some assets form vendor in such case instead of making the payment in cash it issues fully paid debentures to vendor whereby the latter accepts it. The following journal entries are required for this purpose.

1. For purchase of assets

Assets A/c

To vendor A/c

2. Debentures can be issued to vendor under one of the following conditions

(i) at par

Vendor A/c Dr.

To X% debentures A/c

(No of debentures issued X par value)

(ii) at premium

Vendor A/c

To X% debentures A/c

(No. of debenture issued x par value)

To securities premium a/c

(No. of debentures issued x premium value)

(iii) at discount

Vendor A/c

Discount on issue of debentures A/c

(Not of debentures issued X discount value)

To X% debentures A/c

(No of debentures issued x par value)

No of debentures issued = purchase price of asset / issue price of debenture

Calculation of goodwill or capital reserve

As discussed earlier when the company purchases some assets it issued fully paid debentures instead of making the payment in cash. If the amount of purchase consideration is equal to the value of net assets acquired the difference between the agreed value of the assets takeover and the agreed amount of liabilities takeover). No problem is raised but if the purchase consideration is greater than the value of the net assets acquired the difference is treated a capital loss which should be debited to goodwill entry will be:

Sundry assets A/c Dr.

Goodwill A/c (balancing figure) Dr.

To sundry liabilities A/c

To vendor A/c

Secondly if the amount of the purchase consideration is lower than the value of the net assets acquired the difference is treated as a capital profit which should be credited to capital reserve A/c instead of goodwill A//c entry will be

Sundry assets A/c Dr.

To sundry liabilities A/c

To vendor A/c

To capital reserve A/c (balancing figure)

After that entry for allotment of debentures at par or at premium or at discount will be made which has been discussed earlier.

Issue of debentures as collateral security

Meaning sometimes company issues debentures as collateral security against loan taken from a bank or other person, the term collateral security means subsidiary or secondary or additional security in addition to the primacy security if the company makes a default nith repayment of loan at proper time the lender will first of all realise its amount of loan from the principal security if the realizable value of primacy security is insufficient to clear the dues the lender has the right to invoke the benefit of collateral security whereby the debentures may either be presented for redemption or sold in the market if the lender has only surplus form sale of security after meeting the dues he is under obligation to return the same to the borrower in this connection the following important points ar to be remembered.

(i) Lender will simply be the custodian of these debentures.

(ii) No interest is payable on the debentures issued as collateral security because interest on loan is being paid

(iii) The liability of the company is for the amount of land and not for the face value of debentures issued.

Accounting treatment: there are two methods of accounting treatment for such debentures

First method: for pledging the debenture as collateral security since no immediate liability is created by the company therefore no journal entry is recorded in such situation entry is passed only for taking a loan if the loan is taken from a bank the journal entry will be as follows:

Bank A/c Dr.

To bank loan A/c

On the liabilities side of balance sheet only a note being appended below the loan account that the loan is secured by the issue of debentures as collateral security.

Second method: under this method it is necessary to record the issue of debentures as collateral security with the entry for taking a loan. In such a case the following journal entrées will be passed.

(a) On taking a loan

Bank A/c Dr.

To bank loan A/c

(b) On issuing the debentures as collateral security

Debenture suspense A/c Dr.

To X % debentures A/c

Debenture suspense account is shown on the assets side of balance sheet while the debentures account is shown on the liabilities side of the balance sheet. Alternatively debenture suspense account may be shown as deduction out of debentures account on the liabilities side of balance sheet.

Advertising Marketing

Advertising | Marketing Assignment Help |

(i) Advertising can reach mass markets, with great geographic spread very quickly. It is therefore known as the mass communication element of the communication mix. Due to this cost-per-contact is very low.

(ii) Can communicate the unique benefits of the product and its differential advantage over competitors.

(iii) Can influence attitudes and create interest and desire for a product.

(iv) It positions the brand at the desired slot in the consumers mind.

(v) Confers “legitimacy” on a product. There was a time when consumers believed that if a product was being advertised, then it was probably a legitimate product worth considering.

(vi) Can convey emotional benefits of the brand.

(vii) Can combat competitive claims, correct false impressions and misinformation.

(viii) Can build up inquiries for the product.

The limitations of advertising are:

(i) It is a monologue or a one way communication between company and customer. Despite the several methods used to measure advertising effectiveness, much of the real effect of advertising is long term. Target markets need to be repeatedly exposed to the advertising, for it to take effect.

(ii) Although cost-per-contact may be low, absolute ad spends required are very high, just for the message to be noticed. This is essentially due to the media and competitive clutter.

(iii) Advertising is seen as interfering with the consumers viewing, reading or listening experience, hence consumers tend to “zap” the advertising. There are devices today that enable consumers record their favorite TV shows minus the advertising. Whilst advertising can influence wants, it cannot change deeply rooted values and attitudes.

Major types of advertising

The firm’s communication objectives determine the type of advertising it uses.

1. Corporate institutional advertising promotes the company as a whole intended to establish, change or maintain company’s identity. It does not especially ask the target audience to do anything, but to be informed and maintain a favorable attitude towards the company and its products.

2. Product advertising on the other hand not only informs, but seeks to promote the benefit of using firm’s products.

3. Pioneering advertising is used at the introduction stage of the life cycle, when the company is aiming to create a primary demand for the product concept. Companies need explain the product concept, and establish the utility of the product. Consumers need to learn in-depth information about the product and need to see the product being demonstrated.

4. Competitive advertising is most appropriate during the growth stage of the life cycle, when a firm is trying to build demand for their brands. Advertising at this stage stresses differences between brands, so as to build brand preference. Comparative advertising directly or indirectly compares two or more competitive brands on specific attributes. Latter growth and maturity stages of the life cycles sees intense competition amongst players, and companies often resort to comparative advertising to directly attack a competitor. However companies need to be very careful about comparative advertising for two reasons. One, that it can attract a law suit from a competitor for unfair practices. Secondly, it actually provides the competitor a fair amount of mileage at no cost to the competitor.

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Definite Photochemical Quenching

Photochemical Quenching | Chemistry Assignment Help |

Quenching of the spontaneous emission that follows photochemical excitation can be treated as an elementary chemical reaction.

Vibrational deactivation: the transition associated with an electronic absorption band produces a higher electronic state. The molecule is also often left in one of the higher vibrational states of the new electronic state. For molecules in solution, molecular collisions are very effective in removing the excess vibrational energy, probably by one vibrational level step at one time. This energy goes into the motion of the molecules of the solvent and is not detected as emitted radiation. A typical time required for the dissipation of excess vibrational energy by such a process is of the order of 10-10 s. when this time is compared with a typical vibrational period of 10-13 s, many vibrations, say a thousand; occur while the excess vibrational energy is being lost.

The potential energy for a given electronic state is functioning of all the internal coordinates of the molecule, and for polyatomic molecules the potential energy would have to be represented by a surface in this much dimensional space. A representative arrangement of potential curves is determined sufficiently.

The occurrence of a crossing potential energy surface with that initially reached by the absorption process allows a second type of radiationless process to occur. This process can lead to the return of the excited molecule to its ground electronic state. When potential surfaces or two potential curves cross over the molecule to an excited electronic state, to change over into a different electronic state. The crossing of the potential curves facilitates this process, which is known as internal conversion. At the crossover point, the geometry and the potential energies of the two electronic states are equal.

For polyatomic molecules, potential curves often exist with suitable relative postions so that combinations of vibrational deactivations and internal conversions can return the molecule to its ground state before any emission process has had a chance to occur. Other molecules, however, either do not have such crossing potential curves or have electronic states in which the molecules becomes trapped. In such cases emission does occur.

The effect of spontaneous emission can be written, in view of the treatment of the rate equation:

[dNm/dt]spont = Aml Nm

Since Aml plays the role of a constant, it is related to the half-life for spontaneous emission by:

t ½ = In 2/Aml

For spontaneous emission from a state that is reached directly by the absorption of radiation, the spontaneous coefficient Aml is related to the coefficient for induced absorption coefficient ∫ ∝ dv. These relations give:

Aml = (8∏hv3)/c3B = 8∏v2/c2N∫ ∝ dv

Fluorescence and the quenching of fluorescence: if the efficiency of nonradioactive processes that return the molecule to its ground state is not too great, various emission processes can occur. One type of process produces an emission band like that of the observation that the emission band generally appears at longer wavelengths, i.e. lower energy, than the absorption band suggests that vibrational deactivation within the potential curve of the upper electronic state is essentially state is essentially complete before much emission occurs. The emission transaction rather than the exact reverse of the absorption transition is to be drawn.

The relations that have been developed can be used to calculate lifetimes of excited states, as determined by spontaneous emission, for any absorption band for which v at the band center and ∫ ∝ dv are known. In general, lifetimes are longer for upper as the energy separation between the states becomes smaller.

The calculated lifetimes are for states reached directly by the absorption process. The emitting state, however, is often reached by rapid nonradioactive process. Then the lifetime of the spontaneously emitting state will not be related to the intensity of the absorption band. The relation however, will be a general guide to the lifetime due to the emission process.

Any decrease to the efficiency of collisional deactivation, e.g. by freezing in a glass to occur to a significant extent. Many absorption bands are less intense, i.e. occur with a smaller integrated absorption coefficient, than that cited for typical, completely allowed transitions. Emissions correspondingly longer half life, one finds in practice that spontaneous emission can be observed with a half life in to the microsecond range or even up to about 10-4 s in cases where the value of Aml is small enough and nonradioactive processes are relatively ineffective.

Venture Financing Methods

Venture Financing Methods | Finance Assignment Help |

Venture finance, conceptually being risk finance, should be available in the form of equity or quash-equity (conditional or convertible loans). A straight or conventional loan, involving fixed payments, would be unsuitable form of providing assistance to a new, risky venture. New ventures have the problem of cash flows in the initial years of their development; hence they are not able to service debt. However, the requirement for this kind of assistance could still arise in a few cases, particularly during the second stage of financing after the venture has taken off. Venture capital financing in India in the past took three forms: equity, conditional loans and income notes. Conventional loan has been a quite popular source of funds made available by VCFs in India in the past.


All VCFs in India provide equity. Generally, their contribution may not exceed 49 per cent of the total equity capital. Thus, the effective control and majority ownership of the firm may remain with the entrepreneur. When a venture capitalist contributes equity capital, he acquires the status of an owner, an becomes entitled to a share in the firm’s profits as much as he is liable for losses. VCFs buy shares of an enterprise with an intention to ultimately sell them off to make capital gains. The advantage of the equity financing for the company seeking venture finance is that it does not have the burden of serving the capital, as dividends will not be paid if the company has no cash flows. The advantage to the VCF is that it can share in the high value of the venture and makes capital gains if the venture succeeds. But the flip side is that the VCF will lose if the venture is unsuccessful. Venture financing is a risky business.

Conditional loan

A conditional loan is repayable in the form of a royalty after the venture is able to generate sales. No interest is paid on such loans in India, VCFs charged royalty ranging between 2 and 15 per cent gestation period, cost-flow patterns, risk and other factors of the enterprise. Some VCFs gave a choice to the enterprise of paying a high rate of interest (which could be well above 20 per cent) instead of royalty on sales once it becomes commercially sound. Some funds recovered only half of the loan if the venture failed.

Income note

A unique way of venture financing in India was income note. It was a hybrid security which combined the features of both conventional loan and conditional loan. The entrepreneur had to bay both interest on royalty on sales, but at substantially low rates. Some venture funds provided funding equal to about 80 percent of a project’s cost for commercial application of indigenous technology adapting imported technology to wider domestic applications. Funds were made available in the form of unsecured loans at a lower rate of interest during development phase and at a higher rate after development. In addition to interest charges, royalty on sales could also be charged.

Other financing methods

A few venture capitalists, particularly in the private sector introduced innovative financial securities. The participating debenture; is an example of innovative venture financial. Such security carries charges in three phases: in the start-up phase, before the venture attains operations to a minimum level, no interest is charged. After this, a low rate of interest is charged up to a particular level of operation. Once the venture starts operating on full commercial basis, a high rate of interest is required to be paid. A variation could be in terms of paying a certain share of the post-tax profits of royalty.

VCFs in India provide venture finance through partially or fully convertible debentures and cumulative convertible preference share (CPP). CPP could be particularly attractive in the Indian context since CPP shareholders do not have a right to vote.

In developed countries, like the USA and the UK, the venture capital firms are accustomed to using a wide range of financial instruments. They include.

1. Deferred shares: – where ordinary share rights are deferred for a certain number of years.

2. Convertible loan stock: – which is unsecured long-term loan convertible into ordinary shares and subordinated to all creditors.

3. Special ordinary shares: – with voting rights bit without a commitment towards dividends.

4. Preferred ordinary shares: – with voting rights and a modest fixed dividend right and a right to share in profits.

Venture capital funds abroad also provide conventional loans, hire-purchase finance, lease finance and even overdraft finance, but the overall financial package is always tilted in favour of equity component.

What is Consumer Behaviour

Consumer Behaviour

This particular aspect of marketing management describes about the behaviour of a consumer in the present market situation. It follows all the instructions to be used while dealing with modern consumers. After analyzing this aspect, you will be able to describe key factors that influence consumer behaviour, you can distinguish between the types of buying behaviour that consumer exhibit, analyze the stages of the buying process and assess the role of marketing in influencing behaviour at various stages of decision making.

The aim of marketing is to meet the needs of target markets profitably. Consumer behaviour studies how consumers search for, purchase, use, evaluate and dispose off products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs.

Understanding consumers and “knowing why consumers do what they do” is very complex. Customers may say one thing and mean another. They may not be aware of their own deepest motivations and may respond to influences in very impulsive ways. To understand deepest motivations and may respond to influences in very impulsive ways. To understand consumers, marketing theorists have borrowed concepts from other scientific disciplines such as Psychology (study of an individual), sociology (study of groups), social psychology (study of how an individual operates in groups), anthropology (influence of society on groups) and economics to form a new marketing discipline known as consumer behaviour.

The field of consumer research has emerged as an important area of marketing research, to enable marketers to predict how consumers will react to messages and to understand why they make the purchase decisions they do.

The subject Consumer Behaviour is very interesting to learn, the part is covered under marketing and management studies, offers marketing assignment helpmanagement homework help and management course preparation for each grade levels. Get solutions for you doubts and ask questions feely from online tutors.

Redox Reactions

Redox Reactions

Chemical reactions involving oxidation and reduction processes are called redox reactions. Oxidation may be defined as the process in which a species (atom, molecule or ion) increases oxidation number by losing one or more of electrons. The substance undergoing oxidations is called reducing agent reaction, on the other hand, is a process in which a species (atoms, molecules or ions) decreases oxidation number by gaining one or more electrons. The species undergoing reduction is called oxidizing agent. Neither oxidization nor reduction can take place alone. Redox reaction can, thus, be termed as the chemical reaction involving transference of electrons from reducing agent to oxidizing agent.

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