study of living organisms Ecology

ExpertsMind, Biology Assignments, Ecology Assignments

Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, “house”; λογία, “study of”) is scientific study ofrelations that living organisms have with respect to each other&their natural environment, Variables of interest to ecologists includecomposition, distribution, amount (biomass), number,&changing states of organisms within&among ecosystems, Ecosystems are hierarchical systems that are organized into graded series of regularly interacting&semi independent parts (e,g,, species) that aggregate into higher orders of complex integrated wholes (e,g,, communities), Ecosystems are sustained bybiodiversity within them, Biodiversity isfull scale of life&its processes, including genes, species&ecosystems forming lineages that integrate into complex®enerative spatial arrangement of types, forms,&interactions, Ecosystems create biophysical feedback mechanisms between living (biotic)&nonliving (abiotic) components ofplanet, These feedback loops regulate&sustain local communities, continental climate systems,&global biogeochemical cycles,

Ecology îs sub discipline of biology,study of life, The word “ecology” (“Ökologie”) was coined în 1866 byGerman scientist Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919), Ancient philosophers of Greece, including Hippocrates&Aristotle, were amongearliest to record notes&observations onnatural history of plants&animals, Modern ecology branched out of natural history&matured into more rigorous science inlate 19th century, Charles Darwin’s evolutionary treatise includingconcept of adaptation, as it was introduced în 1859, îs pivotal cornerstone în modern ecological theory, Ecology îs not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, natural history environmental science, It îs closely related to physiology, evolutionary biology, geneticsðology, An understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function îs important focus area în ecological studies, Ecologists seek to explain:

Life processes&adaptations

Distribution&abundance of organisms

The movement of materials&energy through living communities

The successional development of ecosystems, and

The abundance&distribution of biodiversity în context ofenvironment,

Ecology îs human science as well, There are many practical applications of ecology în conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agriculture, forestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic&applied science&human social interaction (human ecology), Ecosystems sustain every life supporting function onplanet, including climate regulation, water filtration, soil formation (pedogenesis), food, fibers, medicines, erosion control,&many other natural features of scientific, historical spiritual value,

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